Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), is the successor to IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) and is designed to address the limitations of IPv4, particularly the exhaustion of available IP addresses. IPv6 is a network layer protocol that serves as the foundation for the Internet and many private networks. It introduces several key changes and improvements …

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Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), is a widely used network layer protocol that forms the foundation of the Internet and most local area networks (LANs). It is part of the Internet Protocol suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) and is responsible for the addressing and routing of data packets so that they can be sent across …

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Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a link-state routing protocol used in computer networks to determine the best paths for data packet forwarding within a single autonomous system (AS). Similar to OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), IS-IS is designed for interior gateway routing and is commonly used within large and complex networks, including Internet …

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IP stands for Internet Protocol, and it is one of the most important technologies used in today’s networks. IP is the communication protocol used to transmit data between devices on a network. It is used by almost all modern computer networks, including the Internet. The IP protocol provides a unique address to each device on …

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ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. It is a protocol used to map a network address, such as an IP address, to a physical (MAC) address on a local network. For instance, When a device on a network wants to communicate with another device, it needs to know the other device’s MAC address. ARP allows …

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ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is a protocol used to send error messages and operational information about network conditions. It is typically used by network devices, like routers, to communicate error messages indicating. For example, a requested service is unavailable or a host router could not be reached.



SDN (Software-Defined Networking) is a networking architecture that separates the control plane, which determines how data is transmitted from the data plane, which handles the actual transmission of data. This separation allows the control plane to be implemented in software, rather than being built into networking hardware. SDN has a number of benefits in the …

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MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) is a networking protocol that is used to transmit data packets over a network. It works by encapsulating the data packets in a layer of header information that includes a label, which is used to route the packets to their destination. MPLS is commonly used in enterprise networks and service provider …

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TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that are used to transmit data over the internet. It is the primary protocol used to transmit data over the internet, and is used by billions of devices around the world to connect to the internet and communicate with each other. One of the key features of TCP/IP is …

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